We have demonstrated that feeding additional docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the maternal diet during suckling had a beneficial programming effect on the ability of immune cells to produce IFN-γ and IL-10 and that feeding DHA during weaning resulted in a less inflammatory response in offspring. Most importantly, providing no dietary DHA in either of the critical periods of immune development prevented the establishment of oral tolerance (non allergic reaction to food protein) in female rat offspring. We have also demonstrated that feeding choline as phosphatidylcholine compared to free choline in the maternal diet during lactation improved the pups' immune system development. Feeding a mixture of choline forms to the mother during lactation compared to free choline improved pups' growth and led to an overall more efficient/mature immune response in suckled offspring. The mixture of choline forms provided in that study was similar to what has been reported in women consuming milk and egg during pregnancy and lactation (APRON study).