My research focuses on the effects of anesthetics on the cardiovascular system. Of note, I have recently observed differences in cardiovascular responses to anesthetic agents in animal models of aging males and females - these differences need further investigation. In the near future, I will also be investigating the effects regarding blood flow and delivery of nutrients to the fetus, and how anesthetic agents can alter this important balance. Pregnant women can have surgery unrelated to their pregnancy, so it is important to determine if anesthetic agents given to these people can have effects on the fetus. Finally, there is a large body of evidence suggesting that anesthetic agents given to infants and toddlers can have long-lasting negative effects on their development, in particular brain development. I also plan to investigate whether anesthetic exposure in the fetal stages also affects development in later life.